United States of America #
The overwhelming number of negative comments given by transgenders in some states of this country, which may reflect a dangerous environment for transgenders in some states.
The United States of America is currently the world’s leading country in science and technology and offers a relatively sophisticated system in many areas, including education and employment. Although the law prohibits discrimination against transgenders, transgenders are still treated unfairly in many ways, such as prejudice, violence, harassment, and some local laws.
The United States has a large number of top schools in engineering, science, business, medicine, and many other fields, as well as a very large number of head schools, etc. From the point of view of teaching quality, it can be said that American education is quite well guaranteed.
But the biggest issue in the United States lies in the red states (predominantly Republican, often with conservative policies) and the blue states (predominantly Democratic, often with liberal policies) having different attitudes towards the rights of the transgender community. Additionally, even within blue states, there may be instances of transphobia or homophobia, or incidents where students are harmed in the interest of the school. Therefore, it is recommended to gather more information on school-specific Reddit or other discussion forums. Furthermore, if your academic path is strongly tied to a specific advisor, you can obtain more evaluations about that individual through Rate My Professors.
If you are going to a blue state, please check carefully about transgender laws and health care coverage. If you are going to a red state, please make sure to double-check the state’s transgender criminalization, laws, and regulations regarding transgender.
– The content of this chapter is partially provided by ‘Jeremiah Patrick Hsu’
How to Choose a University/College #
As for rankings, almost all university rankings are based on research capabilities, so they do not apply to undergraduate education. In the US system, undergraduate education includes:
- Liberal Arts Colleges (LAC)
- Research Universities
For vocational education, there are Community Colleges, which have low tuition fees and shorter study durations.
In comparison to community colleges, larger universities are commonly referred to as “Big U” and are mainly research universities. Generally, reputable universities are Land-grant universities that receive federal subsidies and therefore must comply with federal regulations regarding gender and racial discrimination (Education Amendments of 1972).
For smaller schools, it is important to pay attention to accreditation. Accreditation is similar to the accreditation by the Chinese Ministry of Education, but in the US, it is done through alliances. Business schools can have accreditations such as AACSB, ACBSP, and IACBE. These accreditations are international (so some business schools in Hong Kong and China also have them), and schools with these accreditations are generally good, but not all business schools have them. Without accreditation, further academic advancement may be hindered.
In addition, for undergraduate rankings in the US, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education is a useful reference (mainly for the postgraduate stage, R2/R1 universities are very good). US News rankings are also worth considering, but note that liberal arts colleges and universities are ranked separately.
The choice of major is very important. For example, Georgetown’s International Relations program is considered the best in the US, but other majors may not be as strong. The Media Studies program at the University of Amsterdam is excellent (linguistics is also good), but the focus of the entire school revolves around media studies, so other programs may not be as strong.
Moody Bible College of Chicago, a fundamentalist evangelical theological school, was sued under Title IX for not admitting female students to specific programs after receiving federal funding. Generally, schools with religious backgrounds may not have a positive attitude towards the transgender community, but Notre Dame may be an exception, and they provide generous scholarships.
As a side note, in the US, “full-ride” refers to a full scholarship (usually covering full tuition but not necessarily living expenses). “Standardized scores” refer to standardized test scores, which generally include SAT/ACT and AP scores, as well as language proficiency (or under different high school education systems, IB/A-Level, as mentioned later). “Need-aware” means that scholarships/subsidies require proof of income, “merit-based” means scholarships are based on maintaining academic performance (which can be very stressful and difficult), and “need-blind” means scholarships are given unconditionally (only Stanford, Harvard, and MIT offer need-blind scholarships to international undergraduate students).
- This chapter was written by “Jeremiah Patrick Hsu”
The top schools in the United States tend to be private universities and therefore have very high tuition costs without scholarships.
Some colleges and universities may reimburse transgender individuals for medical expenses, but it is important to note that some states may not be transgender-friendly, so please consider this.
- Colleges and Universities that Cover Transition-Related Medical Expenses Under Student Health Insurance - campuspride.org
Some schools will also provide information on their official websites, such as.
- Insurance Benefits for Transgender Students - Berkeley
- Transgender Health Benefits - University of California
Some organizations also provide references to costs and considerations in the United States, such as:
Uniformly speaking, the employment situation depends mainly on the region and industry. For example, there is a high demand for graduates in, for example, technology and financial services. Developed states such as Northeast, California, etc.
Note that while Texas is kinda developed, however, Texas also has criminalized child gender confirmation surgery.
Student Visas #
- F-1 Student Visa: The most common type of student visa that allows students to undertake full-time study in the United States, including universities, graduate schools, community colleges, etc. The validity of the F-1 student visa is generally the duration of the student’s academic program plus a 60-day grace period. During this time, students can also apply for an OPT visa for internships.
- J-1 Visa: This is a non-immigrant visa issued by the United States to research scholars, professors, and exchange visitors participating in programs to promote cultural exchange. It allows students to undertake graduate exchange studies in the United States. The J-1 visa is valid for the length of the academic program plus a 30-day grace period.
- M-1 Vocational Student Visa: Established by the U.S. government to promote international vocational training exchanges, this visa allows students to undertake vocational training in the United States. The validity period is typically the length of the student’s program plus a 30-day grace period.
- H-1B Work Visa: This visa allows you to work in the United States and is commonly drawn after graduation.
Apart from serving as visiting scholars, common ways to obtain a J-1 visa include becoming an outsourced worker or an au pair. Au pairs are unmarried individuals aged between 18-26 from foreign countries who assist in child care in a country other than their place of residence. Both the United States and many other countries offer au pair programs.
For outsourced workers, job opportunities are mainly concentrated in the hospitality industry. The pay rate is around $15-22 per hour, with a typical workweek of 38 hours. However, accommodation is at their own expense, though some companies may offer discounted accommodations or employer-provided lodging facilities. Sometimes opportunities for maintenance engineers and software developers arise, but such opportunities are rare. The J-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa without dual intent1, but can be renewed under terms and conditions. Generally, if you are a sophomore or higher in college or have just graduated, or have five years of relevant experience (actually, three years are sufficient), you are eligible for a J-1 visa.
For au pairs, a basic high school diploma is generally sufficient. Airfare, accommodation, and food are covered by the employer. The concept of au pair originated in Europe, aiming for cultural exchange and language acquisition. The wage is usually the federal minimum wage; some employers may offer better pay, but this is not common. The duration is generally about a year, extendable up to two years. Au pairs are not renewable. The advantage is that the job includes full board and lodging, so you have little or no expenditures. Agencies offering such services usually charge a significant upfront fee.
Work Visas for Students #
There are two types of employment visas during/after study, CPT (Curricular Practical Training) and OPT (Optional Practical Training).
CPT (Curricular Practical Training) is an internship opportunity offered to international students in American universities. It allows students to undertake internships in the United States after completing their degree studies and is typically a part of the F-1 student visa.
Students must obtain the support and approval of the school when applying for CPT visas. The school needs to ensure that the internship experience is aligned with the student’s academic plan. Students must adhere to specific rules while using the CPT visa, including not exceeding a 90-day period of unemployment and securing employment within the validity period.
CPT is valid during school, but if you work more than 20 hours per week, it is considered full-time. If full-time CPT exceeds 12 months, it may affect the application for post-graduation OPT.
OPT (Optional Practical Training) is a short-term work visa aimed at students of American institutions. This visa is an extension of the F-1 student visa, so to apply for an OPT visa, students must first hold an F-1 student visa.
The OPT visa is generally valid for 12 months but can be extended to 24 months for students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Students generally need to specify a particular internship program when applying for OPT and report the internship’s progress to the school during the internship.
Students can apply for OPT either before or after graduation. When applying, they need to provide proof from the school, indicating they have graduated or are about to graduate.
The process for applying for OPT includes:
Obtaining an application form from the international student affairs office of the school and filling out the required information.
Sending the application form and necessary documents (including school proof, identification, etc.) to the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
Waiting for the USCIS to review the application.
If approved, the student can work in the United States after graduation.
Employment Visas #
H-1B Professional Work Visa: Specially designed for foreign skilled workers, the H-1B visa allows employees to work in the United States under specific conditions. The validity of the H-1B visa is generally six years but can be extended under certain conditions.
L-1 Visa: Designed for senior executives or managers of multinational corporations. The L-1 visa allows these executives or managers to work in the United States for a period of one to five years. The L-1 visa also allows family members to accompany the employee.
To be added.
Comments & Feedbacks #
We use italics to add missing parts of the grammar for comprehension. Please provide feedback if any errors are added, thank you.
Section ‘How to Choose a University/College’ and ‘Visas’ are provided and corrected by “Xu Yitong.”
Anonymous 1 #
- this country is crap, no comment. (No reason, capitalist government not acting, homeless people everywhere. The streets are dirty and disorganized, hostile people exist everywhere, not just against transgenders, but probably against minorities as well.)
- there are no special details about applying to US colleges. (Just apply and be done with it)
- more scholarships, human rights persecution masters. (Even for a master’s degree, enough scholarships can bring the cost to European levels. See the next article about human rights.)
- you do not solve them they solve you. (Do not believe that the school is looking out for your interests, if your presence infringes on the school’s interests, even if you are right, will be 100% fucked)
- about 50% of people are assholes. (referring to hostility towards transgenders)
My experience is that the environment and policy of every math department varies a lot in the US. If you want join one, try to visit the real place and/or talk to some insider.
Dual-intent is a concept in U.S. immigration law. For non-immigrant visas, displaying an intention to stay in the U.S. permanently often leads to visa denial. In contrast, dual-intent visas, although not designed for immigration, permit applicants to express a willingness to potentially immigrate. They also provide a route to permanent residency and, ultimately, citizenship if the individual opts for it. ↩︎