Canada #

Canada is a country located in North America, bordering the United States. In relative terms, obtaining a work permit in the United States is somewhat simpler. Quebec, a province in Canada, has a relatively different social environment, with French as its official language. Therefore, when considering opportunities in Quebec, one needs to take into account their abilities in multiple aspects.

Healthcare Resources #

Access to psychiatric and general prescription medications is somewhat strict, but gender-affirming healthcare is relatively comprehensive.

Hormone and Antagonist Access #

As per feedback, obtaining the first long-term prescription takes at least 2 months. Specifically, it takes about a month from scheduling an appointment to the first visit, followed by an examination after filling out “informed consent.” Then, there’s another month’s wait for the second visit, after which, if everything goes smoothly, the prescription can be obtained. After the first month, blood tests are conducted, followed by checks every three months.

In Canada, after obtaining the first long-term prescription, it becomes relatively easy to renew it at places like school clinics, along with periodic blood tests.

However, there may be instances where some universities are unable to provide prescriptions and require a “referral” to other clinics. In such cases, there might be unforeseen circumstances, such as wait times.

Education #

Canada’s universities are primarily public institutions, making tuition much cheaper compared to the United States. Additionally, there are a significant number of highly-ranked universities. Many programs have different application pathways for domestic and international students, especially academic master’s programs, which may not be open to international students but often offer a combined Master’s and Ph.D. programs as an alternative.

Colleges and universities have different systems. For instance, some colleges may not grant access to the country’s healthcare resources and require additional fees, while university students can obtain healthcare insurance similar to that of Canadian citizens. However, in most cases, dental and eye care are not included and require additional payments.

Canadian students are not restricted from working during their studies.

Costs #

College tuition fees are relatively cheaper, while universities can be more expensive. Tuition costs can range from CAD 10k/year to CAD 30k/year, undergraduate programs typically cost CAD 20-60k/year, and international graduate students pay around CAD 10k/year. Doctoral students receive grants of approximately CAD 20k-30k/year and are exempt from tuition fees.

According to feedback, doctoral grants are sufficient to cover living expenses but may not leave much room for savings.

Overall, the cost of living is relatively high. For example, renting in downtown Toronto costs approximately CAD 1,200/month, while suburbs may require CAD 800/month.

Employment #

Canada’s economy relies mainly on the service and manufacturing industries.

Residency #

Students and Post-Graduation #

After graduating in Canada, one can obtain an open work permit known as a Post-Graduation Work Permit (PGWP) for a minimum of 1 year and a maximum of 3 years. During this period, individuals can work in Canada without restrictions regarding occupation or employer. The duration of the PGWP depends on the length of the graduate degree; for example, a 1-year degree results in a 1-year PGWP, while a 5-year degree leads to a 3-year PGWP, as it cannot exceed 3 years.

Permanent Residency #

Requirements for permanent residency vary among provinces in Canada. For instance, Ontario requires funds for living expenses, while Quebec assesses French language proficiency.

Canada primarily uses a points-based system where meeting specific criteria earns individuals a certain number of points, such as Canadian university degrees and local work experience. This system is akin to the points system for obtaining residency in major cities in China.

To obtain residency, one can apply through the Federal Skilled Worker Program Express Entry, which includes categories like FSW, FST, and CEC. Additionally, there are provincial nominee programs (PNPs) that individuals can apply through, such as Manitoba’s MPNP. Generally, an IELTS score of 8777 or proficiency in French can add points to the application.

Furthermore, one can apply through the Provincial Nominee Program.

In summary, industry requirements, education, and language proficiency are three crucial factors.

Acknowledgments #

This document on healthcare, visas, residency, and education is provided by “北雁清凉” (North Goose Coolness).

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